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About The Author

Demosthenes Lorandos is an attorney, forensic psychologist, lecturer and author.  He is in constant demand across the country for his authoritative and tireless advocacy on behalf of the falsely accused.   In defense of his clients Dr. Lorandos brings to bear his extensive expertise in the science of coerced confessions, shaken baby syndrome, battered women’s syndrome, parental alienation syndrome, recovered memories, false accusations, repeated question effects, interviewer bias, behavioral indicators of abuse and other related subjects.  Dr. Lorandos is a member of the California, Michigan, New York, Tennessee and Washington, D.C. bars, and a member of the bar of the United States Supreme Court.   He is also the co-author of such works as Cross Examining Experts in the Behavioral Sciences, Benchbook in the Behavioral Sciences and The International Handbook of Parental Alienation Syndrome. Dr. Lorandos may be recognizeable from his appearances on The Today Show, The View, Larry King Live and Court TV, and from his extensive online catalog of free legal advice videos.

 
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Wechsler Scales and African‑American Populations
Posted On June 24th, 2013  By admin    

Full scale IQ scores differ substantially for African‑American males depending on: (1) the race of the examiner, and (2) levels of mistrust regarding the examiner.[1]  African‑American males who distrusted white examiners obtained significantly higher IQ scores with black examiners.  Additionally, those African‑American males who distrusted white examiners also obtained lower overall IQ scores when assessed by white examiners.  We at Falsely-Accused.net feel that quite obviously, there are many problems related to any IQ score obtained by a white examiner from a black male.

Cross‑Examining the Wechsler for Black Males

1.  Considerations of examiner race and subject race can influence the results of intelligence testing ‑‑ Correct?

[USE THE 22 FOUNDATIONAL QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS POSTS

IF YOU HAVE NOT YET DONE SO]

2.  The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology is a generally recognized and accepted, peer‑reviewed journal in your field ‑‑ Correct?

3.  And a 1981 study by Terrell and his colleagues published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ‑ titled “Effects of Race of Examiner and Cultural Mistrust on the WAIS performance of Black Students” ‑ could be relevant to your opinions in this case ‑‑ Correct?

4.  Terrell and his colleagues reported two major findings:

(1)  African‑American males who distrusted white examiners obtained significantly higher IQ scores when tested by black examiners.

And (2)  African‑American males who distrusted white examiners also obtained lower overall IQ scores when tested by white examiners.

Now my question: If African‑American males who distrust white examiners obtain significantly higher IQ scores when tested by black examiners, that outcome demonstrates a racial factor related to WAIS performance ‑‑ Correct?

5.  And if African‑American males who distrusted white examiners also obtained lower overall IQ scores when tested by white examiners, that outcome also demonstrates a racial factor related to WAIS performance ‑‑ Correct?

6.  You have not published any data in a peer‑reviewed journal necessitating that we reconsider the findings of Terrell and his colleagues ‑‑ Correct?

7.  You cannot cite anything published in a peer‑reviewed journal necessitating that we reconsider the findings of Terrell and his colleagues ‑‑ Correct?

8.  Without the availability of data necessitating reconsideration of the findings reported by Terrell and his colleagues, your profession generally recognizes and accepts that racial factors are related to WAIS performance ‑‑ Correct?

 

 9.  And the data reported by Terrell and his colleagues demonstrates that the Black male in this case could have obtained significantly higher IQ scores if tested by a black examiner ‑‑ Correct?

10.  In fact, your ethical code obligates you to recognize these racial considerations related to IQ testing ‑‑ Correct?

11.  The American Psychological Association promulgates standards for the administration and scoring of psychological tests ‑‑ Correct?

12.  These A.P.A. standards for the administration and scoring of psychological tests are linked to the A.P.A.’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct  ‑‑ Correct?

13.  And the A.P.A.’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Standard 2.04 (c) states the following B

- [ read ] -

“Psychologists attempt to identify situations in which particular interventions or assessment techniques or norms may not be applicable or may require adjustment in administration or interpretation because of factors such as individuals’ gender, age, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status.”[2] – – Correct?

14.  The results of the IQ testing you obtained in this case may have been influenced by the subject’s race ‑‑ Correct?

15.  Standard 7.04 (b) of your Ethical Code ‑ addressing “Truthfulness and Candor” in your “Forensic Activities” ‑ states the following B

- [ read ] -

“Whenever necessary to avoid misleading, psychologists acknowledge the limits of their data or conclusions.”[3]  Correct?

16.  Considerations of ethical standards 2.04 (c) and 7.04 (b) necessitated that you acknowledge the potential influence of race on the IQ scores you obtained ‑‑ Correct?

17.  But you failed to comply with those ethically mandated obligations ‑‑ Correct?

Attempts at Interpreting “Scatter”

At Falsely-Accused.net we note that each of the Wechsler scales rely on verbal and performance subtests.  The subtests are scored using scaled scores that range from 0‑20.  Many psychologists mistakenly assume that a subject’s range of scores ‑ or the “scatter” ‑ between different subtests lead to various diagnostic conclusions.  A 1988 study examined subtest “scatter” obtained from the 1880 subjects used for the standardization of the WAIS‑R.[4]  This study found that the higher a subject’s IQ, the greater the subtest scatter they exhibited.  Additionally, a difference from 7 to 9 points across subtests was not unusual.

A 1987 review of the relevant research indicated that the average child taking the WPPSI or WISC‑R obtained a range of approximately 7 points on the various subtests.[5]  An attorney‑psychologist has indicated that counsel can move to exclude the testimony of a psychologist who inappropriately interprets subtest scatter on the Wechsler scales.[6]  We at Falsely-Accused.net teach that a motion for exclusion would contend that the psychologist is not adequately qualified ‑ by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education ‑ to interpret the Wechsler scales.

Cross‑Examining Attempts at Interpreting Scatter

[If the subject was an adult taking the WAIS‑R or WAIS‑III]

1.  In this case, you attributed some significance to the “scatter” seen in the different subtests of the Wechsler ‑‑ Correct?

[USE THE 22 FOUNDATIONAL QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS POSTS

IF YOU HAVE NOT YET DONE SO]

2.  The Journal of Clinical Psychology is a generally recognized and accepted, peer‑reviewed journal in your field ‑‑ Correct?

3.  And a 1988 study by Matarazzo and his colleagues published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology ‑ titled “Intersubtest Scatter on the WAIS‑R Standardization Sample” ‑ could be relevant to your opinions in this case ‑‑ Correct?

4.  Mattarzo and his colleagues reported two major findings:

- [ read ] -

(1)  The higher a subject’s IQ, the greater the subtest scatter they exhibited.

And (2)  A difference of 7 to 9 points across subtests was not that unusual.

Now my question: If higher IQ’s are associated with greater subtest scatter, then interpretations of “scatter” are contaminated by IQ level ‑‑ Correct?

5.  And if a difference of 7 to 9 points across WAIS‑R subtests is not that unusual, then it would be mistaken to overinterpret subtest scatter ‑‑ Correct?

[If the subject was a child, taking the WISC-R or WISC-III,

ask the following questions]

1.  A 1987 study by Silverstein published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology ‑ titled “Two Indices of Subtest Scatter on Wechler’s Intelligence Scale: Estimated vs. Empirical Values” ‑ could be relevant to your opinions in this case ‑‑ Correct?

2.  In his 1987 study, Silverstein found that the average child taking the WPSSI or WISC‑R obtained a range of “scatter” of 7 points on the various subtests.

Now my question: If the average child obtains a range of “scatter” of 7 points on the WPPSI or the WISC‑R, attributing significance to subtest scatter can be mistaken ‑‑ Correct?

3.  And there are considerable similarities between the administrative and scoring procedures of the WISC-R and the WISC-III ‑‑ Correct?

4.  But in attempting to attribute significance to the subtest scatter in this case, you did not report the relevant research ‑‑ Correct?

5.  And neglecting to report the relevant research is indicative of poor professional judgment on your part ‑‑ Correct?

6.  And if you resorted to poor professional judgment in this case, your mistaken judgment threatens to misinform and mislead this proceeding ‑‑ Correct?


[1].  Terrell, F., Terrell, S.L. & Taylor, J. (1981). Effects of race of examiner and cultural mistrust on the WAIS performance of black students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 750-751.

[2].  American Psychological Association (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.

[3].  American Psychological Association (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.

[4].  Matarazzo, J.D., Daniel, M.H., Prifitera, A. & Herman, D.O. (1988).        Intersubtest scatter on the WAIS-R standardization sample.   Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 940-950.

[5].  Silverstein, A.B. (1987). Two indicos of subtest scatter on Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale: Estimated vs. empirical values. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 409-414.

[6].  Reed, D.G. (1988). The significance of significant differences among subtest scores on the WAIS-R. The Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, Fall, 405-420.

 

 
 
 
 
 
By Gardner, Sauber, and Lorandos, has become the standard reference work for PAS. The International Handbook features clinical, legal, and research perspectives from 32 contributors from eight countries.
 
The International Handbook of
Parental Alienation Syndrome
 
By Terrence W. Campbell and Demosthenes Lorandos, is a must for every family law practitioner. This two-volume practice set provides step-by-step guidance how to refute behavioral scientists.
 
Cross Examining Experts in the
Behavioral Sciences
 
By Lorandos and Campbell, provides immediate access to authoritative information and immediate decision-making tools for judges and attorneys.
 
Benchbook in the Behavioral Sciences